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How to Reduce Transplant Shock on Your Farm

Monday-Motivation-Photo_4-24-2017

Avoiding transplant shock: An open show transplanter in use as the crew sets out cabbage in the field.

Avoiding transplant shock when transplanting starters from the greenhouse to the field is a key sustainable farming method.

The time of year has once again arrived when we will be taking plants out of the greenhouse and transplanting them into the field. This can be one of the most stressful experiences plants undergo as they are taken from the warm and sheltered environment of the greenhouse and placed into a field where they are at the mercy of the elements. Plants will almost always incur some amount of damage to their roots as well as their leaves during this process. All of these various stresses are grouped under the general name of “transplant shock.” If plants undergo too much transplant shock, it can leave them open to disease, pest pressure, and lower yield potential. But what can we do to help our plants through this period of increased stress?

Transplant shock is really the sum of all the stresses plants experience during the move from flat to field. In order to look at how we can help the plant through this time, we’ll divide these stresses into three different categories: environmental changes, physical damage, and nutritional deficiencies.

Most farmers help their plants acclimatize to these moisture and temperature changes by putting them through a period of  “hardening  off,”  especially in the spring. This is done by taking the crop out of the greenhouse and placing it in a new location where the plant is exposed to air movement and greater temperature changes, but is still sheltered from weather extremes. This can be accomplished by locating the plants in an area where they are open to moderate breezes and lower daytime temperatures, but can be covered to shelter them from strong winds or nighttime frosts. This limited exposure signals them to strengthen their main growing stalks to cope with wind and change the  chemistry of their leaves in order to withstand the lower temperatures.

To help transplants acclimatize to changes in soil temperature and biology and avoid transplant shock, there are several things we can do. The use of black plastic mulch in the field will warm the soil and is especially useful when it comes to cucurbits and solanaceous crops as it assists with weed control. Putting molasses into the transplant water can help too, as this will stimulate soil biology which in turn will raise the soil temperature.

The second and third categories of transplant stress, physical damage and nutrient deficiencies, are closely linked. Physical damage is unavoidable to a certain degree when transplanting. Care should be taken to avoid breaking any leaves or causing bruising as these injuries can become vectors for disease. The roots, however, not the upper part of the plant, often sustain the most damage during transplantation. Roots uptake nutrients mainly through their delicate root hairs and their growing tips, both of which are very susceptible to damage. This can lead to the plant experiencing a nutrient deficiency shortly after transplant due to its decreased uptake ability. This nutrient deficiency occurs at the same time the plant is trying to regenerate its root system and adjust to its new environment. This type of root damage can also happen easily with bare root transplants because in the process of removing the soil from the roots, more of the fragile root hairs can be damaged than when the transplants are in plug form.

A broccoli plant in the greenhouse. This plant shows no signs of nutrient deficiency

A broccoli plant in the greenhouse. This
plant shows no signs of nutrient deficiency

Reducing Transplant ShockAiding Plants To Avoid Transplant Shock

Helping the plant through the transplant stress is essential and can be accomplished a number of different ways. One way is to stimulate the plant to grow with natural growth hormones. Another is to provide the plant with a supply of easily absorbable macro- and micronutrients. Kelp is an excellent source of natural growth hormones and micronutrients. During transplantation a liquid kelp extract works best as it can easily  be added to water. It is also important to address macronutrients including phosphorus, calcium, potassium and nitrogen. All of these nutrients are involved in the formation of new tissue, and giving your plant an available supply of these nutrients will help it repair damage at a faster pace.

It is important to make sure that your plant is not already deficient in these nutrients before they go into the field.   It is surprising how many plants have some phosphorus deficiency, noticeable by a purpling of the leaves, or a nitrogen deficiency, noticeable by yellowing or chlorotic growth, before going into the field. Plants deficient at transplant are at a further disadvantage since they are already struggling to make up for these nutrients as well as trying to repair damage. Make sure that you are using high quality potting mix for  your seedlings to avoid this problem. Even with a good potting mix plants can become stressed, and it may be necessary to top dress the flats with a compost mix or fertilizer or you can inject liquid fertilizers into the for their needs. Special attention should be paid to plants that are past their ideal transplant date. Look for the noticeable signs of deficiency, and keep your plants well supplied with nutrition.

One of the best ways to decrease transplant shock is to supply extra nutrients and biostimulants at the time of transplant.  There are several ways to accomplish this. One is to drench the plants while they are still in their flats. This can be done by mixing a large dose of nutrients into the final watering, or by mixing up a batch of “transplant soup” in a bin and submerging the flats in the solution until the soil is saturated. It is okay to have some of the “soup” get on the foliage of the plant as this will simply act as a foliar feeding. When dealing with bare-root transplants soaking the roots of the plants in a weak solution can be done instead. Another way to deliver this “soup” is to mix it into the transplant water. This works well, but depending on the transplanter, it can leave a lot  of  the solution in between the plants where it is not as effective. However it will help to stimulate soil biology, especially if molasses is used in the solution. Using the two systems of drenching flats and adding products to the transplant water works well, as it both provides the nutrition your plants need and stimulates soil life.

Transplanting is a very stressful time for the plants.  They are put into conditions very different than what they are used to and are exposed to a wide range of stresses they have not encountered previously. The plants can also suffer damage during transplantation, especially to the root system, and this can lead to a period of nutrient deficiency as the plant tries to repair itself and as its ability to find nutrients has been decreased. All of these setbacks can weaken the plant and open it to disease and pest pressures, as well as decrease overall yield potential. By using conscientious cultural practices, stimulating root growth and soil life and giving the plant easily available forms of nutrients, we can help our plants pull through transplant shock faster. This in turn can lead to an increase in our plants’ ability to fend off disease and pests and result in improved yields.

Allen Philo has worked as the field  operations manager on a large organic vegetable farm, and is  currently the specialty  crop  consultant  for Midwestern Bio-Ag. He can be reached at allenp@midwesternbioag.com.

This article appeared in the April 2012 issue of Acres U.S.A.

by Allen Philo

Acres U.S.A. Podcast Episode 1: Abbey Smith and Charles Walters

Abbey Smith, global network coordinator for the Savory Institute.

Abbey Smith, global network coordinator for the Savory Institute.

 

In Episode 1, we interview Abbey Smith with the Savory Institute and ask her about her life as a teacher, rancher and world traveler. She’s spent years studying and practicing holistic grazing methods, and is trying to help the Savory Institute reach their goals of creating and protecting 1 billion hectares of sustainable grazing land around the world.

Then, we turn back the clock and present a talk from Acres U.S.A. founder Charles Walters. He details the challenges facing eco-farmers, which is still applicable today, and how those challenges increase in the face of the popularity of conventional farming.

Enjoy. If you have feedback or ideas, please email us at podcast@acresusa.com.

Soil Carbon: Changing Dirt into Soil

Soil

Soil carbon’s role in creating healthy topsoil is becoming a global topic.

It’s a popular notion that humankind is contributing excessive amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in the form of greenhouse gas. There’s been debate on what can be done to correct this situation, going so far as to suggest methods of sequestering the carbon into places of long-term storage. Regardless of who’s right or wrong, it can’t be debated that the definition of a healthy topsoil is when the soil has a rich concentration of durable carbon compounds that change for the better the chemical, physical and biological nature of the soil.

I heard recently a Ph.D. horticulture specialist say that you cannot add too much compost to a soil and that compost was the key to building and preparing a soil. In fact, he published on his university’s letterhead a statement where he recommends adding as much as 6 cubic yards of compost to an area of 1,000 square feet while preparing the site for landscaping. I heard a similar statement was made at a Santa Fe nursery seminar by a guy who makes compost. Well, that statement may be true if the compost was still composed of extremely decay-resistant woody material that was also low in nutrients, but then it would not be compost.

Photo by the author.

Photo by the author.

The simple act of composting is where specialized fungi and bacteria called saprophytic microorganisms collaborate in the reduction (shrinkage) of organic matter by utilizing the calorie value of the fats, proteins and sugars contained in the organic matter. As the microbes eat, they are concentrating all the parts that cannot be eaten, such as the minerals and the humic substances (HS). If plentiful levels of oxygen are available, the microbes that need oxygen to function will do the composting. A bi-product of their work will be CO2 which the microbes liberated from the carbon that was part of the digestible (decomposable) organic matter — the proteins, the fats and the sugars (carbohydrates). We call this source of carbon “rapid cycling carbon,” as it simply will not persist in the soil as part of the long lasting carbon bank that defines a topsoil. The part of a topsoil that defines the very essence of the soil is the concentration of the carbon substance that is not rapid cycling, and which has a resonance time in the soil of thousands of years. These carbon molecules are powerful biologic chemicals of nature called humic acids (HA or HAs), which are contained within the whole material called humic substances. They are not food for microbes, fungi or bacteria, therefore, they are not decomposable and will persist for a long time. Compost is a poor source of these substances, which any commercial soil lab can verify by doing a humic acid extraction and assessment. Levels of 1 to 5 percent humic acid are typical of a high quality finished compost, which is insignificant and inadequate to expect compost to fulfill the objective of building soil carbon directly.

For this reason, you simply can’t add enough compost to make a difference without overdosing the soil with nutrients! This also makes the term humification in my opinion an obsolete term, since that term implies that composting (decomposition) of organic matter results in the formation and high concentration of humic substances, which it does not! If it did, we would see levels much higher than 5 or even 25 percent humic acid in commercial compost, which we rarely see unless the compost was salted (fortified) using humate/leonardite.

Soil Carbon and Compost

Carbon found within the molecular structures of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (sugars) is turned into CO2 when oxygen is plentiful and aerobic saprophytic microbes can do their work. If O2 is not plentiful, then only those microbes that can function anaerobically (without air) can do the decomposing. This is not good, because toxic chemical compounds are the byproduct of anaerobic organic matter decomposition.

Compounds such as lactic acid and alcohol are produced when oxygen is not available in adequate amounts and those chemicals are toxic to plants at even parts per million. Anaerobic metabolism can occur in our muscle tissue as well, when we are out of shape and have poor vascularity (blood flow) in the muscles. This causes poor gas exchange during exercise and the muscle cells will not have adequate levels of oxygen, resulting in the production and accumulation of lactic acid. The lactic acid is toxic and irritating to the cell walls of your muscles and nerve endings and you consequently will feel pain a day or two after you workout. So it doesn’t matter if we are talking about soil, or we are talking about our own bodies, we must have adequate amounts of oxygen at all times in order to have optimum health.

Soil Carbon and Compost Limits

So we don’t want compost that is produced without oxygen, but here’s the other side of the problem when we look back at the original statement “that you can’t add too much compost.”

Humic substances accumulatingYou can indeed add too much compost, and for many reasons, one of which is back to the problem of oxygen. Here’s how and why; the more decomposable organic material you have, the more microbes will want to get into the act therefore, the more oxygen will be needed to accommodate this feeding frenzy. We call this the “BOD” or the Biological Oxygen Demand. If you incorporate into the soil too much compost that still contains a lot of combustible organic matter, the resulting population explosion of saprophytic microorganisms will rapidly use up the oxygen and your soils will go anaerobic. This results in a whole slew of unhealthy conditions, including the production of lactic acid and alcohol, two chemicals that are toxic to plant roots.

The other problem with adding too much compost is that if it is really compost and if it is made from a source of nutrient-dense plant organic matter, it will contain a rich and concentrated source of plant nutrients. After all, who do you know that is intentionally looking for a poor nutrient source of organic matter in order to make their compost? That would be silly, plus you may not achieve the proper carbon to nitrogen ratio needed to actually instigate the composting process. If you made the compost using the proper carbon to nitrogen ratio, by default your finished product will contain a significant amount of nitrogen. The bulk density of compost can easily be 40 to 50 pounds per cubic foot, which is 1080 to 1350 pounds per cubic yard. If you add 6 cubic yards of compost, as suggested by the University Ph.D. for a total of 7,800 to 8,000 pounds of compost per 1,000 square feet, you have also added over 103 to 106 pounds of nitrogen, a toxic amount! On a per acre level, that’s approximately 4,600 pounds of nitrogen, an amount that no farmer on earth would dare apply. So yes indeed, you can add too much compost!

As I’ve already described, the carbon found in over 95 percent of the carbon-rich parts of a compost are easily and rapidly decomposed into CO2, which defends my claim that compost is the wrong tool in the tool box, needed to accumulate carbon into the soil. The purpose of this tool is that it could potentially be a source of plant available nutrients if the composter was actively utilizing nutrient dense sources of plant organic matter.

As a fertilizer, compost can nutritionally support vegetation and it is then that we see a more efficient and effective development of topsoil, only because the plant is better at photosynthesis! If the plant is better at photosynthesis it can convert more atmospheric carbon into biological carbon called glucose, which is then transported down into the roots and provided to the bacteria and the mycorrhizal fungus. “Root Exudates” are liquid Glucose leaking into the soil from the roots of plants.

Soil Carbon and Humus

In the same article, May 2011 issue of Discover Magazine, my 30-year long opinion of where humus comes from is finally collaborated by another source. Humus does not come from humification of dead organic matter, rather it’s a result of an efficient mutualism between plants and the terrestrial biosphere of soil microorganism, and most specifically the mycorrhizal fungi. The mycorrhizal plant fungi relationship is critical to the process of pedogenesis, because it’s the massive contribution this fungus makes to its host plant in the form of water and minerals that allows the plant to be healthier and to live longer. Science has demonstrated that when a plant is mycorrhizal, the uptake of minerals from the soil is dramatically better and the drought tolerance of the plant is also significantly better.

Once again, a healthier and longer living plant can contribute more carbon in the form of liquid glucose to the soils terrestrial biosphere and from there everybody gets fed. Be clear that almost without exception, farm soils worldwide are lacking a strong mycorrhizal component therefore, expecting humus to accumulate in those same farm soils is most likely not going to happen. Also, research has proven that plants must have the benefit of this amazing fungus in order to get those minerals out of the ground in a useful fashion and with the minerals comes water. This is how we grow a nutrient-dense crop and also grow soil. For farming, mine reclamation, landscaping, highway re-vegetation, and other venues where you hope to build soils, you must inoculate with a mycorrhizal product, if you expect to see these benefits.

In 1974 I described this relationship as the “Soil Food Web,” a process of soil formation and collaboration, where most terrestrial life benefits from the Bio-Geo-Chemical process of mineral nutrient sequestering and availability. The term humus is one used by the average person, but its technical description used in chemistry is humic substance! The term humic substance describes a whole bunch of carbon rich compounds that resist decay and which are products of soil chemistry. Within the whole substance is a chemical of nature called humic acid. While humic acids are powerful chemicals with many characteristics and benefits, it’s the whole substance of humic compounds that are the major bank of long lasting carbon in the soil, resulting in the formation and accumulation of a rich topsoil.

But What About Soil Compaction?

The large, air-filled spaces, or “macropores,” in untilled soil without compaction, often resemble the branching vessels of the human circulatory system. A team of Nordic researchers led combined computed tomography (CT) scanning with traditional measurements of air exchange to “diagnose” the long-term impacts of soil compaction on the hidden, but vital, soil pore network. When scientists examined cores of heavy clay subsoil suffering from compaction on a research site in Finland, they found the macropores were greatly affected compared with a non-compacted control soil. The compacted soil contained mostly long, vertical “arterial” pores, or pipes, with significantly fewer marginal pores branching from them.

Most troubling to the researchers was how lasting the impacts of compaction appear to be. In the study, the group examined soil cores taken from a depth of 0.9 to 1.2 feet in plots where 30 years earlier a heavy tractor-trailer drove over the ground four times to create compaction in an experimental treatment.

It’s where a lot of farmers end up at some point, with dirt. And turning it into soil starts with understanding carbon.

By Michael Martin Meléndrez. This report on soil compaction appears in the April 2014 issue of Acres U.S.A. magazine. This story originally published in October 2011 issue of Acres U.S.A. magazine. Michael Martin Meléndrez and his wife Kari, own Soil Secrets LLC, Soil Secrets Worldwide LLC, and the Trees That Please Nursery. Contact Soil Secrets and Michael by calling 505 550-3246, or email soilsecrets@aol.com.

Stockmanship: 7 Lessons for Success

Pigs raised outdoors.

That highlights lesson one of my continuing life course of study in stockmanship. It is, simply, go out and go out often to look at, listen to and really study the animals in your charge.

I was raised in a house full of books and given a pretty broad view of my world from the seat of an old Studebaker pickup, atop many a sale barn gate, and perched on straw bales at livestock shows and breeder auctions. Dad began and ended each day with the stock, and I believe he could eventually spot one just when it was starting to get sick.

1. Observation

Thirty minutes just before full light and just before sunset are optimal times to walk among the creatures in your care. During those times they are generally more closely grouped, are settling in or rising up from a night of rest and are more easily approached for closer examination. These are also times when livestock are more vulnerable to predation.

I find much benefit in watching hogs rise up and come off of their beds. It is at that moment that they will demonstrate the earliest signs of lameness, their feet and legs are most observable, and they will often then demonstrate early respiratory ill precursors in the form of coughing, sniffling and/or labored breathing. Those last animals off of the beds and slow movers should be noted for further observation.

2. Avoid Barn Blindness

Point two of understanding stockmanship is the need to be totally honest with yourself as you look at and appraise your livestock. As the old-times would say, don’t be barn blind — blind to the problems in the home barn and pastures. Really see what you have in the fold or the stable, warts and all. This also means honestly appraising their offspring and how they go on to perform on your farm and for others. If you had 10 cows and they had 10 calves last spring, but you had to sell those 10 calves in eight different lots at a fall sale, you have problems.

Too often herds and flocks, regardless of size, carry too many poor performers. I have often made the point that very few herds or flocks cannot be made better and more profitable by simply removing the bottom third of their numbers. They take away from the better performers crucial, often limited feedstuffs to needed attention from the producer, and the presence of individuals of poor quality will reduce the selling price of all in the lot or drove.

Drive 75 good red feeder pigs into a sale ring with one poor-quality black shoat among them. I guarantee that the little black rat will move to the outside of the group, circle the ring every few seconds and be seen by every farmer for 10 townships around.

3. Stockmanship Quality Trumps Quantity 

The small stockman, most especially, has to emphasize quality over quantity. Too often I have seen animals of poor quality enter the marketplace and automatically be tabbed or dismissed as “just the production of a small farm.”

It is or should be the small farmer who has the time and focus to see that all management practices are fully carried out in a timely fashion. No one expects small herds and flocks to be headed up by purple-ribbon winners, but the pigs and calves from small farms shouldn’t look like they have been sired by opossums and buck deer either.

We had a neighbor with two dozen cows of 25 different colors whose calves sold in at least 18 different lots each fall. They would come off the truck ranging from a bull calf with horns that would have been impressive along the Chisholm Trail to a mouse-colored heifer so small that she had to stand up twice to cast a shadow. The more even in size and uniform in appearance a group of animals can be made on the farm the more they will make when sold.

4. Know Your Market

Point four is that what the producer knows and does with that knowledge now has an ever-growing value in the marketplace. Building sales and selling prices and drawing new customers hinges upon being an accessible presence in the marketplace, being knowledgeable and a good communicator and arriving in the marketplace with animals that will perform well for others.
We had a 35-plus year marketing niche selling swine breeding stock to other small farmers who sought seedstock produced in a manner and facilities similar to their own with breeding current for the times. They wanted stock to fit their farms and markets and that meant that we had to know about those farms and what shaped those markets. That is true whether marketing seedstock, brown eggs, grass-fed beef and lamb or heirloom pork.

5. Avoid Fads

Point five of understanding stockmanship also touches a bit on the issue of fad-chasing. I have seen potbellied pigs, emus and ostriches and even the raising of chinchillas in garages come and go. The simple truth is: that which is produced for greatest success from the small stock farm is that which is produced in a more traditional and natural manner. Livestock should stay to the middle-of-the-road in terms of growth and carcass performance and be produced with respect for consumer concerns and be produced in a cost-effective manner. Even the most ardent of foodies are beginning to question when and how much to pay for organic production. I have seen complex and costly livestock rations formulated to reduce the use of corn and soy and performance from them often falters when things get even slightly out of balance or new sources of ration components must be tapped.

I was at a farm conference some years ago when two ladies came up to me in tears. They had just paid high prices for a couple of trios of heirloom turkeys and were then handed a ration plan that was several pages long. There were many ingredients needed to achieve a balanced ration, some had to be added in quite small amounts, many were going to be hard to find and maintain in stock and some were going to be quite costly. It was, no doubt a good ration, but one not easily formulated. Very little thought had been given to real-world economics and product accessibility. I can still recall the look of relief that came over them when I recounted my experiences and success with a certain nationally available line of feedstuffs. That firm had begun using all vegetable sources of protein, had a continuing program of poultry research and was readily available even in rural areas. Practices that add meaningful value are worthwhile, but we must be careful of imposing constraints that will box out too many while trying to box in certain elements of production.

6. Pennywise Foolishness

Point six is an old one. Do not become pennywise to the point of being pound foolish. I remember the dressing down one of my vo-ag teachers gave the crowd at an FFA swine sale sitting on their hands for more than the Missouri March weather warranted. “It does no good to go home and tell your sows how many boars you bid on, you’ve got to buy at least one.”

An input is something you spend money on with the intent of making money. An old rule of thumb that I have tried to follow holds that a male capable of advancing a flock will have a cost to acquire of roughly the same value of the five best females to which he is to be bred. That is probably not true of the beef cattle trade at the moment, but there has to be far more to a good bull, boar or ram than merely “freshening” the females to which he is bred.

Likewise, feedstuffs, the crucial fuel for efficient growth and reproduction, are not a place for cutting corners. You cannot starve a profit out of an animal.

7. Record Keeping

Without the guidance of good records, how do you know if you are doing well or not with your own stockmanship? You can, for example, sell a dozen eggs that costs $1.95 to produce for $2 a dozen, but not very far nor very fast. If they cost $2.05 to produce, the taxman and the banker will tell you what you’re doing wrong, but not nearly as quickly as good accounting would have. More and more farmers are becoming involved in direct marketing of their goods and wares, and to carry that to successful ends they must know their full costs per unit of production — including a fair return on producer labor.

Whether it is a dozen eggs, a jar of honey, a 2-pound stick of whole hog sausage or half of a carcass of a grassfed beef animal, every cost in the trip from farm to fork must be accounted for and fully covered. In a direct marketing system expenditures will include the costs incurred in transport and marketing. Here I would cite a hard lesson now being learned by some working with what are being termed the minor and rare breeds or large fowl chicken.

While nearly all breeds of poultry and hoofed stock were developed for some level of economic proficiency in their performance, some were developed to produce in rather narrow and very specific economies and environments. A chicken that produces a few eggs in a very harsh climate is a good thing. A chicken that produces a few eggs on a Midwestern farm is not a good thing.

Most U.S. consumers are still cost-driven. To remain viable, to have a sustainable presence in his or her arena the producer must operate in a cost-effective manner. For every problem to be encountered in farming there will appear a solution that is simple, quick, inexpensive and absolutely wrong. Only time and experience will enable you to spot those kinds of quick fixes and then work around them. There is no book on stockmanship with all the answers — I know because I have spent a half century looking for one. What the producer knows and is able to communicate is worth every bit as much as what he or she has produced in the way of goods. No one should know your stock better than you. No one can better tell the history behind them than you.

You are standing on the shoulders of livestock producers reaching back to the sons of Noah, and everything that they knew to be true of that calling is still true today. Some things have been added, but the lore, the wisdom and the truth of it has stood the test of time. Do well by them, speak honestly of them, sell only the kinds that you would buy, and you will prosper.

Missouri-based farmer Kelly Klober specializes in raising livestock using natural methods. He is the author of Talking Chicken, Dirt Hog: A Hands-On Guide to Raising Pigs Outdoors … Naturally, and Beyond the Chicken, all available from Acres U.S.A. For more information, visit acresusa.com or call 1-800-355-5313.

This article appears in the June 2016 issue of Acres U.S.A.

Acres U.S.A. Bestseller List — January 2017

Here were the top sellers between Jan. 1, 2017 and Jan. 31, 2017, from the Acres U.S.A. bookstore.

restoration_agriculture_awardseal

1. Restoration Agriculture

By Mark Shepard

$30.00

Restoration Agriculture explains how we can have all of the benefits of natural, perennial ecosystems and create agricultural systems that imitate nature in form and function while still providing for our food, building, fuel and many other needs — in your own backyard, farm or ranch.

Copyright 2013, softcover, 339 pages

Buy It: http://www.acresusa.com/restoration-agriculture

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Eco-Alternative Farmsteading

Emily and Brian Towneby JILL HENDERSON

Russellville, Missouri is beautifully situated on the line that separates the rugged Ozark Mountains from the rolling prairies of the Midwest. This small town has a quaint charm that blends well with the dramatic rolling hills and rural farms that dot the landscape. It’s also a convenient 15 miles to the bustling state capital, Jefferson City.

Living smack dab in the middle of this classic slice of Americana are Emily and Brian Towne, self-described “eco-alternative farmsteaders” striving to produce the bulk of their own meat, dairy, eggs, produce and non-GMO animal feed, while building a fledgling retail business selling and bartering eggs, chicken, milk, produce, garlic and herbs to a small but growing consumer base.

The Townes love the country life —it’s in their blood. Emily grew up on a rocky Ozark hill farm and Brian was raised on a traditional row crop farm in Iowa. Yet, like so many farm kids, Brian and Emily set out into the world after high school to get an education and to find out if there was something else out there for them besides farming. When the couple met in Omaha, Nebraska, in the early ’90s, Emily was working for a Fortune 500 company and Brian worked as a mechanic. Soon after they were married, the couple moved back to Brian’s family farm where they grew corn, soy and a variety of livestock. Three years later, the couple moved to Columbia, Missouri, with the hopes of starting a farm of their own one day.

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