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Archive | Disease

Cow Comfort: Alleviating Stress for Improved Production

As I listened to Tom and Sally Brown, organic dairy farmers from Groton, New York, describe their struggle with Johne’s, I was reminded of what Dr. Ann Wells, D.V.M., from Arkansas says about cattle stress and its relation to health. This makes so much common sense — not just for Johne’s, but for most diseases and production/reproduction problems: Stress is a major contributor to disease in animals.

When doing farm calls, Wells likes to first observe the cows from a distance in a pasture or in the barn, keeping close track of which ani­mals are not with the rest of the group or who are acting “differently.”

As she walks toward the group, she notices which animals don’t readily get up or act in a predictable manner. She feels that those outliers can be to be early indications of sub-clinical problems, and can help alert a farmer to where management changes are needed.

She then analyzes the body condition of each animal, noticing body fat, hair quality and other factors, which can indicate low-grade conditions. Even noting which animals have the most flies around them is important — flies seem to bother weakened animals more than strong animals.

Sudden or acute stress is often much less of a problem to animals than chronic or periodic stress which can seriously depress the immune system. While it is often easy to detect the causes of acute stress — calving, disease, sud­den changes in temperature, it is often more difficult to notice chronic stress because it comes on gradually.

Some common causes of chronic stress in­clude nutritional inadequacy, lack of suf­ficient clean water, mycotoxins in feed, mud or ice, stray voltage, lack of ample bedding or other discomfort in stalls, and internal parasites.

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Genetic Drift: Protecting Your Crops from Contamination

Genetic drift is one of the most common problems organic farmers in the United States face. Recently, my husband Klaas looked across the road at our neighbor’s farm and said in a horrified tone, “You know, if Harold plants Bt corn on that field next year, we won’t be able to plant organic corn anywhere on this farm.” This sudden realization, born in the increasing knowledge that organic

Seed contamination can occur when farms cross-pollinate, or when waterways carry contaminants into other fields.

farmers can no longer ignore the impact of their neighbor’s genetically modified crop varieties, struck us hard. We had thought that the neighbor’s corn pollen might affect a small portion of our nearest field, something that appropriate buffer zones would take care of, never really thinking it could render many downwind acres unsuitable for corn. But it certainly could. This is the reality of organic farming today.

The impact of genetic drift can affect my farm, my planting plans, my certification, my income — not on just a few rows, but possibly on many acres. The scariest part of this reality is that the farmer won’t know if contamination has occurred until it’s too late, and then there is relatively little he can do to prevent it. To be prepared for the 2000 crop, organic farmers must start thinking of GMOs as being their problem too.

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Rhodium: The Mystery Nutrient Revealed

Rhodium is not a common term used among farmers and health professionals. But the mineral nutrient does matter.

Rhodium

Rhodium’s molecular formula.

Trace nutrients tend to become submerged once the so-called roster of essentials is exhausted. They do not count, if standard books on the subject are to be taken seriously. Yet peer-reviewed research says something else. Unfortunately, it takes research between 40 and 50 years to make it into the clinic.

For this reason and for reasons to be explained, you won’t encounter the mineral rhodium in the vocabulary of most health maintenance providers or nutritionists who hope to cope with metabolic mischief. It is rare, this element called rhodium — number 45 on the Periodic Table of Elements, number 56 on the Olree Standard Genetic Periodic Chart.

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Soil Minerals: Nature’s Sunken Treasure for Health and Fertility

Soil minerals not only can help your plants, but they can help your health too. 

Periodic Table of the Elements with atomic number, symbol and weight.

Readouts from high-priced instruments tell us that ocean water contains 92 elements — give or take a few, depending on location near ocean vents and extraction methods — which appear as the first 92 entries of Mendeleyev’s periodic table. We rely on paleontologists and archeologists to tell us what happened with the North American continent. One single event suggests recall before we move forward to place ocean minerals under the microscopic eye. About 55 million years ago an asteroid crashed into the shallow sea near what is now the Yucatan Peninsula. It had been traveling at perhaps 85,000 miles per hour, give or take, and lost its way for reasons only speculation can supply. The crash terminated the age of dinosaurs, literally leveled most of the continent, extinguished species, annihilated woodlands, and prepared the way for mountains to rise, savannahs to form, and, not least, for mineral dusts to be distributed worldwide.

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Urban Bee Environments Boost Pathogen Pressure

bee flowerResearchers from North Carolina State University have found that urban environments increase pathogen abundance in honeybees and reduce honeybee survival. The research team found that colonies closer to urban areas and those managed by beekeepers had higher pathogen pressure. “Overall, we found that the probability of worker [bee] survival in laboratory experiments declined threefold in bees collected from urban environments, as compared to those collected in rural environments,” says associate professor of entomology Steve Frank. However, the researchers also found that immune response was not affected by urbanization. Because immune response was the same across environments, researchers think the higher pathogen pressure in urban areas may be due to increased rates of transmission, which could be because bee colonies have fewer feeding sites to choose from in urban areas, so they are interacting with more bees from other colonies.

This article appears in the February 2016 issue of Acres U.S.A.

More Sustainable Strawberry Production

Plasticulture

Strawberry field

A team of researchers from North Carolina State University set out to provide strawberry growers with information that could help them transition to more sustainable soil and pest management production practices. Their study, published in HortTechnology, compares conventional, compost and organic strawberry production systems in the southeastern United States, and revealed good news for growers. All three systems resulted in positive net returns, and two showed “considerable reductions” in negative environmental and human health impacts.

According to the authors, the nonfumigated compost system and organic system resulted in reductions in negative environmental and human health impacts measured by a set of indicators. “For example, the total number of lethal doses (LD50) applied per acre from all chemicals used in each system and measuring acute human risk associated with each system declined from 118,000 doses per acre in the conventional system to 6,649 doses/acre in the compost system and to 0 doses per acre in the organic system,” the authors explained. “Chronic human health risk, groundwater pollution risk, and fertilizer use declined as well in the compost and organic systems as compared with the conventional system.”

This article appears in the December 2015 issue of Acres U.S.A.