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Archive | Weeds

Smart Sowing for Natural Weed Control

weedy-wheatNew research results from the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences report that weeds would have a tough time competing against crops such as corn, grains and beans if farmers were to alter their sowing patterns.

“Our results demonstrate that weed control in fields is aided by abandoning traditional seed sowing techniques. Farmers around the world generally sow their crops in rows. Our studies with wheat and corn show that tighter sowing in grid patterns suppresses weed growth. This provides increased crop yields in fields prone to heavy amounts of weeds,” said Professor Jacob Weiner, a University of Copenhagen plant ecologist.

Research studies performed in Danish wheat fields, together with recent studies in Colombian cornfields, demonstrate that modified sowing patterns and the nearer spacing of crops results in a reduction of total weed biomass. The amount of weeds was heavily reduced — by up to 72 percent — while grain yields increased by more than 45 percent in heavily weed-infested fields. The trick is to increase crop-weed competition and utilize the crop’s head start, so that it gains a large competitive advantage over the neighboring weeds. The research results from Colombia have been published in Weed Research. This encapsulation of the research is from the March 2015 issue of Acres U.S.A.

Diverse Plant Communities Resist Invasive Species

diverse-oak resist invasive.tifHerbivores consume more nonnative oak leaf material in areas with diverse native plant communities than in less diverse communities. Why diverse plant communities tend to resist invasion by non-native or invasive species remains uncertain. Researchers from the Illinois Natural History Survey and the Morton Arboretum have been examining the potential role of herbivores on the invasion of nonnative plant species in diverse plant communities. The researchers examined herbivore damage on leaves of non-native oak trees in arboreta across the United States. They found that non-native oaks in regions with high oak species diversity showed more leaf damage than those in regions with low diversity.

This article appears in the December 2014 issue of Acres U.S.A.

True Grit in Battle Against Weeds

battle-against-weedsU.S. Department of Agriculture agronomist Frank Forcella has devised a tractor-mounted system that uses compressed air to shred small annual weeds like common lambsquarters with high-speed particles of grit made from dried corn cobs. Ongoing field trials may confirm the system’s potential to help organic growers tackle infestations of weeds that have sprouted around the bases of corn, soybean and other row crops.

Dubbed “Propelled Abrasive Grit Management” (PAGMan), the weed control system Forcella is testing disperses 0.5-millimeter-sized grit particles in a cone-shaped pattern at the rate of about 300 pounds per acre using 100 pounds per square inch of compressed air.

This summer marked a second round of field trials of PAGMan on multiple rows of silage corn grown on 10-acre plots of certified organic land in Minnesota. Field trial results from 2013 showed season-long weed control levels of 80 to 90 percent in corn using two treatments of the abrasive grit-one at the first leaf stage, and the second at the three- or five-leaf stage of corn growth. Corn yields also compared favorably to those in hand-weeded plots used for comparison.

The crop plants escape harm because they are taller than the weeds during treatment and their apical stems (growing points) are protected beneath the soil by thick plant parts. Results from small-plot studies have been published in Weed Technology and other journals.

This article appears in the October 2014 issue of Acres U.S.A.

Interview: Chemical Crutch — Examining the Industrial Agriculture Cycle of Dependence from a Whole-Systems Approach

David Mortensen Interview

David Mortensen, Ph.D.

David Mortensen, Ph.D. interviewed by: Chris Walters


David Mortensen, Ph.D., is a professor of weed ecology at Penn State. Back in early 2012 he led a team of co-authors who produced a paper called “Navigating a Critical Juncture in Sustainable Weed Management.” The equivalent of an agricultural bombshell, it delivered unhappy news about the consequences of engineering crops to withstand more than one pesticide. Noting the remarkable ability of weeds to evolve resistance strategies, Mortensen and his co-authors predicted ecological disaster if crops engineered to permit the return of 2,4-D and dicamba are put into circulation. The article’s predictions of exponentially rising auxinic herbicide use were shocking until it emerged that the USDA’s estimates were even higher. Over two years later, as biotechnology’s latest assault draws closer to final regulatory approval or refusal, it seemed like a good idea to check in with Mortensen. Author of dozens of research papers, he is a veteran of decades working in fields alongside farmers in Iowa, Maryland, and many states in between.

ACRES U.S.A. What is the crux of the issue here?

DAVID MORTENSEN. This new technology that’s going to “save” herbicide- resistant crops — that is, the new stacked-trait herbicide-resistant crops — in my view is going in exactly the wrong direction. It’s going in the wrong direction for a number of reasons, not least of which is that if we adopt them we are going to double or triple herbicide use on our major commodity crops, corn and soybean, with significant increases in use on cotton. We tried to be conservative and careful in our Critical Juncture paper with that estimate of doubling and tripling herbicide use. We spent months debating that amongst the co-authors. Thus it’s intriguing for me to read in the USDA’s own assessment that we will increase use of auxinic herbicides four to seven-fold if we approve these new crops, as the USDA seems to be leaning toward doing. I find it bordering on maddening to think that’s an acceptable trajectory to put ourselves on. It goes against everything I’ve worked on for the past 30 years. Continue Reading →

Fighting Weeds with Microbes

Ragweed

We read many, many studies involving manipulation of DNA with as of yet uncalculated risks. It was quite refreshing to read new research employing DNA-based tools in tandem with common sense for the good of all forms of agriculture and the health of the soil.

Using high-powered DNA-based tools, a recent study at the University of Illinois published in Microbial Biology identified soil microbes that negatively affect ragweed and provided a new understanding of the complex relationships going on beneath the soil surface between plants and microorganisms.

“Plant scientists have been studying plant-soil feedback for decades,” said U of I microbial ecologist Tony Yannarell. “Some microbes are famous for their ability to change the soil, such as the microbes that are associated with legumes — we knew about those bacteria. But now we have the ability to use high-power DNA fingerprinting tools to look at all of the microbes in the soil, beyond just the ones we’ve known about. We were able to look at an entire microbial community and identify those microbes that both preferred ragweed and affected its growth.”

Researchers believe an effective strategy to suppress weeds might be to use plants that are known to attract the microbes that are bad for ragweed, and in so doing, encourage the growth of a microbial community that will kill it.

“We used the same soil continuously so it had a chance to be changed,” Yannarell said. “We let the plants do the manipulation.”

This encapsulation of the research is from the June 2014 issue of Acres U.S.A.

Fungus May Offer Natural Weed Control

Weed control AmaranthA naturally occurring fungus may prove useful in the weed control fight against Palmer amaranth, an aggressive southern weed that can grow at the rate of 2 inches a day and out-compete corn, cotton, soybean and other crops for resources, potentially reducing their yields.

Weed Control Important to Avoid Glyphosate Resistance

To make matters worse, some biotypes of the weed have become resistant to weed control using glyphostate herbicides. As a possible alternative, USDA scientists are exploring ways to formulate Myrothecium verrucaria, a fungus which attacks Palmer amaranth’s leaf and stem tissues, causing wilt, necrotic lesions, loss of chlorophyll and other disease symptoms that can kill young plants and weaken older ones. Studies at the Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center operated by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service in Stoneville, indicate Myrothecium can wreak similar havoc on biotypes of Palmer amaranth that resist glyphosate and other herbicides such as triazines. Learn more about this possible weed control in the February 2014 issue of Acres U.S.A.