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Kunekune Pigs: Perfect for Small Farms

Nursing kunekune pigs.

Colorful six-week-old purebred Kunekunes nursing.

Kunekune pigs (pronounced “cooney cooney”) are a smart option for small farms. Kunekune means “fat and round” in the Maori language. These tasseled, sweet-tempered, medium-sized pigs hail from New Zealand. Fe­males average 100 to 175 pounds, while males can reach the 200 to 250-plus range. They have short, upturned snouts that discour­age rooting, and they do not challenge fences. Kunekunes are grazing pigs and are able to grow on low inputs, making them an ideal breed during periods of escalating grain prices. Gour­met chefs in Los Angeles have declared Kunekune pork outstanding.

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My husband and I raise our Kunekunes in a semi-rural environment within the growth management boundary of Olym­pia, Washington. We have more than a dozen neighbors surrounding our 4-acre parcel. Our county conservation district has advised us that our pastures can support two boars, eight sows, and their piglets. One boar can eas­ily keep eight sows in pig, though. Kunekunes are odorless, quiet, and safe for children. This keeps the neighbors happy, and both kids and adults love to visit.

Feeding Kunekune Pigs

We rotate our pigs through five pas­tures, moving them every other day dur­ing the spring and summer. Supplementation is sometimes necessary, depending on the quality and quantity of available pasture. We add approximately 2 cups of or­ganic mixed grain (15 percent protein) both morning and night for each pig. Grass only con­tains adequate protein levels five months of the year here in western Washington. With shade from tall ever­green trees, even less may be available. When the pasture stops growing in late summer we add alfalfa pellets and pro­duce scraps.

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Our local brewery supplies us with 25 gallons each week of an organic am­ber ale swill (non-alcoholic effluent from the brewing process) that is filled with yeast and enzymes. In the fall our friends supply windfall apples and pears. Pigs will eat just about anything from the garden other than onions and garlic. Beets, carrots, and potatoes are their favorite vegetables. We feed them old leftovers and keep everything fresh in the fridge — although the farm dog already has dibs on any and all meat scraps from the kitchen.

Kunekunes should be fed alfalfa hay during the winter when they are off pasture. We prefer alfalfa pellets because nothing is wasted and it is easier to feed. We pur­chase organic grain and pellets not only for the health of the pigs, but also for our own protection from pesticide residue in the dust. We also like the fact that organic grain is mostly free of genetically-modified organisms. Although it is quite a bit more expensive than conventional feed, the price of the pork can offset this cost if advertised as or­ganically-fed.

Housing Kunekune Pigs

pig shelter

Shelter for kunekune pigs can be simple.

Pigs on pasture still need shelter from rain. We had the good for­tune to obtain scrapped sections of a carbon-fiber rocket fuselage from a developing space travel company; these make excellent shelters. We have a sec­tion in each of our pastures and over part of the paddock. The pigs usu­ally sleep in the open unless it is raining. They generally stay in a pile to remain warm and conserve energy.

During winter months, our pigs sleep in the barn with access to an exterior gravel paddock. Taking them off pasture during the rainy season prevents soil compaction. Pigs do not soil their bed­ding like ruminants in confinement. Kunekunes do not need extra heat unless piglets are born in cold temperatures. Heat lamps should be installed with the utmost caution so that a poor­ly hung or defective lamp does not burn down the barn.

Breeding Kunekune Pigs

Kunekunes are slow-growing and take their time before getting saddled with a bunch of piglets. While they are sexually mature by between five and eight months, they may not be interested in breeding for another six months. It takes some time for the males to build up confidence. We imagine them saying, “Excuse me madam, but your aroma is quite alluring. You wouldn’t consider — no no, of course not. I am so sorry. Please forgive me. I’ll just take a nap over here… so sorry.” With time and maturity, though, he will chat­ter nonstop in her ear and roar frequent­ly, sounding like a grizzly bear.

My husband and I were in the barn one morning helping our goat deliver her first kids when we heard a passionate pig conversation between our boar, Newton, and our gilt, Shiva. (Shiva is named after the world-famous Vandana Shiva, a physicist and agron­omist from India. I highly recommend her books Soil Not Oil and Stolen Harvest.) Three and half months later, Shiva gave birth to seven gorgeous piglets.

If left on pasture until the end of gesta­tion, a sow will build a beautiful nest from grass and tree branches. She will stay under the nest two days prior to delivery and several days after the piglets are born.

Hoof Care

Once or twice a year pigs need their hooves trimmed. This merely requires a high-speed micro-drill, two able-bodied people, and about 10 minutes. Kunekunes are so placid that two small wom­en can even handle a boar.

The easiest way to do this is to separate the pig to be trimmed from the rest of the drift (the proper name for pig herd). Put a handful of grain on the ground, squat next to the pig, reach under it, and grab the two legs on the far side. Pull the legs toward you and roll the pig onto its back. As soon as the pig is upside down, grab the other front leg so that one is in each hand, straddle the pig — facing the head — and place a foot on each side of the pig’s shoulder. Do not get behind the back legs or you may get kicked.

Using a sandpaper cylinder on the micro-drill, level the nail to the nail pad and round off the outside edge. Smooth off the sharp edges of the dew claws. It will not take more than five minutes to do all four hoofs. Step off the pig and release the front legs. Reward the pig with a piece of fruit and good scratch. Be sure to stretch your back before doing the next one!

Vaccinations and Worming

Several veterinarians here in the Pacific Northwest have recommended Rhini Shield TX4 to protect pigs from erysipelas, parvo, atrophic rhinitis, and certain types of pneumonia. If you plan to take your pigs to a fair where there will be other pigs, you will definitely want to vaccinate several weeks beforehand.

The main benefit of worming — which really means de-worming — is to ensure that you are actually farming pigs and not worms. Pigs pick up worm eggs from the soil. Lung worms can contrib­ute to pneumonia in winter months. Even with steady pasture rotation it is difficult to keep pigs free of worms. Pigs’ noses are on the ground 99 percent of time that they are not asleep; if worms exist on the pasture, the pigs will ingest them. If you are new to raising livestock, you will find many opinions related to worming. Over-worming and inadequate worming can lead to resis­tant worms, just as improper use of an­tibiotics can beget superbugs. To be on the safe side, consult with your veterinarian.

Kunekune Tusks

Kunekune boars grow impressive tusks. Not being a particularly aggressive breed, though, they do not often use their tusks against other pigs. Even folks who keep multiple boars do not find the need to file down the tusks. Those who want to try this anyway, though, can easily do so using a simple wire tool that can be bought or made at home. Do this when the boar is on his back to have his hooves trimmed. File his tusks down to the gum line. The tooth root is below the gum line, so this does not cause any pain. Each tusk can be removed in about five to ten seconds with rapid back and forth sawing once the wire is in the right spot. Just make sure you are not touching gum tissue before you begin!

Interns

An increasing number of farm in­terns are hungry for farm knowledge and experience. A college intern can make life on the farm much more enjoyable and can relieve some of the workload. Students are often willing to work in exchange for fresh fruits and vegetables and possibly some fresh or frozen meat. A young farm intern will be thrilled to help out with hoof trimming, tusk fil­ing, worming, or just brushing the pigs. Kunekune pigs are affectionate animals, and brushing them is as enjoyable to us as it is to them.

A Smart Investment

The time is right for people interested in investing in pigs. With escalat­ing grain prices, livestock owners across the country are selling their drifts off at auction. Pork prices will escalate as soon as pigs become scarce. Purchasing Kunekune piglets for breeding stock now will allow the farmer to have low-input premium pork available when the prices soar over the next few years. For those that just want to raise a pig for their own consumption, what better animal could you buy than one that won’t tear everything up and escape in the pro­cess? For those wanting to raise the saf­est and most economical pigs, purebred Kunekunes are a great option.

By Karin Kraft. This article was originally published in the February 2013 issue of Acres U.S.A. magazine.

For more information on Karin Kraft and Kunekunes, visit The Iron Horse Farm.

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