Kunekune pigs (pronounced cooney cooney) are a smart option for small farms. Kunekune means fat and round in the Maori language as they hail from New Zealand. They are tasseled, sweet-tempered, medium-sized pigs with females averaging 100 to 175 pounds and 200-250-plus pounds for males. They have short, upturned snouts that discourage rooting, and they do not challenge fences. Kunekunes are grazing pigs and are able to grow on low inputs, making them an ideal type of pig to raise during periods of escalating grain prices. Gourmet chefs in Los Angeles have declared Kunekune pork outstanding.
My husband and I raise our pigs in a semi-rural environment within the growth management boundary of Olympia, Washington. We have more than a dozen neighbors surrounding our 4-acre parcel. Our county conservation district has advised us that our pastures can support two boars, eight sows and their piglets. However, one boar can easily keep eight sows in pig. Kunekune pigs are odorless, quiet and are safe for children, which keeps the neighbors happy, and both kids and adults love to visit with them.
Feeding Kunekune Pigs
We rotate our pigs through five pastures, moving them every other day during the spring and summer. Depending on the quality and quantity of pasture available you may need to supplement. We add approximately 2 cups of organic mixed grain (15 percent protein) in the morning and at night for each pig. In Western Washington, grass only contains adequate protein levels five months of the year. With shade from tall evergreen trees, even less may be available. When the pasture stops growing in late summer, we add alfalfa pellets and produce trim.
Our local brewery supplies us with 25 gallons a week of an organic amber ale swill (non-alcoholic effluent from the brewing process) that is filled with yeast and enzymes. In the fall our friends supply windfall apples and pears. Pigs will eat just about anything from the garden other than onions and garlic. Beets, carrots and potatoes are their favorite vegetables. You can feed them old leftovers and keep everything fresh in the fridge. In case you are wondering, the farm dog already has dibs on any and all meat scraps from the kitchen.
Pigs should be fed alfalfa hay during the winter when they are off the pasture. We prefer alfalfa pellets because nothing is wasted and it is easier to feed. We purchase organic grain and pellets not only for the health of the pigs, but also for our own protection from pesticide residue in the dust. We also like the fact that organic grain is mostly free of genetically modified organisms. Although it is quite a bit more expensive than conventional feed, the price of the pigs sold for pork will offset this cost if advertised as organically fed.
Housing Kunekune Pigs
While on pasture, pigs need shelter from rain. We have had the good fortune of obtaining scrapped sections of a carbon-fiber rocket fuselage from a developing space travel company, which makes excellent shelters. We have a section placed in each of our pastures and over part of the paddock. The pigs usually sleep in the open unless it is raining. They generally sleep in a pile to stay warm and conserve energy.
During winter months our pigs sleep in the barn with access to an exterior gravel paddock. Taking them off pasture during the rainy season prevents soil compaction. Pigs do not soil their bedding as do ruminants in confinement. Kunekune pigs do not need extra heat unless piglets are born in cold temperatures. Heat lamps should be installed with the utmost care and caution so that a poorly hung or defective lamp does not burn down the barn.
Breeding Kunekune Pigs
Kunekunes are slow-growing and take their time before getting saddled with a bunch of piglets. While they are sexually mature, between five to eight months, they may not be up to reproduction for another six months. It takes some time before the males build up confidence in their seduction. Initially it sounds like, “excuse me madam, but your aroma is quite alluring. You wouldn’t consider, no no, of course not, I am so sorry. Please forgive me. I’ll just take a nap over here … so sorry.”
With time and maturity, he will chatter nonstop in her ear and roar frequently, sounding like a grizzly bear.
We finally heard our boar, Newton, tell this story just right to our gilt Shiva. (Shiva is named after the world-famous Vandana Shiva, a physicist and an agronomist from India. If you haven’t read any of her books, I highly recommend Soil Not Oil and Stolen Harvest.) My husband and I were in the barn one morning helping our goat deliver her first kids when we heard a lot of passionate pig conversation. Three and half months later, Shiva gave birth to seven gorgeous piglets.
Left on pasture till the end of gestation, a sow will build a beautiful nest from grass and tree branches. She will stay under the nest two days prior to delivery and several days after the piglets are born.
Once or twice a year pigs need their hooves trimmed. To trim hooves, all you need is a high-speed micro-drill, two able-bodied people, and about 10 minutes. Two small women can handle even a boar, as Kunekunes are so placid. The easiest way to do this is to separate the pig to be trimmed from the rest of the drift (proper name for pig herd). Put a handful of grain on the ground, squat next to the pig, reach under it and grab the two legs on the far side. Pull the legs toward you and roll the pig onto its back. As soon as the pig is upside down, grab the other front leg so that one is in each hand, straddle the pig — facing the head — and place a foot on each side of the pig’s shoulder. Do not get behind the back legs or you may get kicked.
Using a sandpaper cylinder on the micro-drill, level the nail to the nail pad and round off the outside edge. Smooth off the sharp edges of the dew claws. It will not take more than five minutes to do all four. Step off the pig and release hold of the front legs. Reward with a piece of fruit and good scratch. Be sure to stretch your back before doing the next one!
In the Pacific Northwest, several porcine veterinarians have recommended Rhini Shield TX4 to protect pigs from erysipelas, parvo, atrophic rhinitis and certain types of pneumonia. If you plan to take your pigs to a fair where there will be other pigs, you will definitely want to vaccinate several weeks prior.
The main benefit of worming, which really means de-worming, is to ensure that you are actually farming pigs and not worms. Pigs pick up worm eggs from the soil. Lung worms can contribute to pneumonia in winter months. Even with steady pasture rotation it is difficult to keep pigs free of worms. Pigs’ noses are on the ground 99 percent of time that they are not asleep, so if worms exist on the pasture, the pigs will ingest them. If you are new to raising livestock, you will find many opinions related to worming. Over-worming and inadequate worming can lead to resistant worms just as improper use of antibiotics. To be on the safe side, consult with your veterinarian.
Kunekune Pig Tusks
Boars grow some impressive tusks. Since Kunekune pigs are not aggressive, they do not use their tusks against other pigs. Even those that keep multiple boars together do not find the need to file down the tusks. However, if you want to try this anyway, the tusks can easily be filed down using a simple wire tool that you can buy or make at home. When on his back to have his hooves trimmed, the boar can also have his tusks filed off at the gum line. The tooth root is below the gum line, so this does not cause any pain and each tusk can be removed in about five to 10 seconds with rapid back and forth sawing once the wire is placed in the right spot. Just make sure you are not touching gum tissue before you begin!
An increasing number of farm interns are hungry for farm knowledge and experience. A college intern can make life on the farm much more enjoyable and can relieve some of the workload. Often students are willing to work in exchange for fresh fruits and vegetables and possibly some fresh or frozen meat. A young farm intern is thrilled to help out with the hoof trimming, tusk filing, worming or just brushing the pigs. Kunekune pigs are affectionate animals, and you will enjoy brushing them as much as they enjoy being brushed.
A Smart Investment
The time is ripe for people interested in investing in Kunekune pigs. With escalating grain prices, livestock owners across the country are selling off their drifts at auction. Pork prices will escalate as soon as it becomes scarce. Purchasing Kunekune piglets for breeding stock now will allow the farmer to have low input premium pork available when the prices soar over the next few years. For those that just want to raise a pig for their own consumption, what better animal could you buy than one that won’t tear everything up and escape in the process? For those wanting to raise the safest and most economical pigs, purebred Kunekunes are a great option.
By Karin Kraft. This article was originally published in the February 2013 issue of Acres U.S.A. magazine.
For more information on Karin Kraft and Kunekunes, visit The Iron Horse Farm.